Source: Migration Policy Institute analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data from the American Community Survey (ACS), 2008-2012 pooled, and the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), by James Bachmeier of Temple University and Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute (PRI). Data for the DACA estimates are modeled using U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2012 ACS and the 2008 SIPP in order to account for the required entry date in 2010. Estimates of the deferred action program for parents are from U.S. Census Bureau, 2008-2012 ACS data and 2008 SIPP data
* “Top Industries of Employment” are those in which unauthorized immigrants were employed at the time of the survey or during the last five years. “Other services” are miscellaneous services, not including the following services listed separately: (1) professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services; (2) educational, health and social services; and (3) arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services.
** “Homeowners” are unauthorized immigrants residing in homes that are owned, not rented.
*** To be eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, unauthorized immigrants must have entered the U.S. before age 16; have a high school degree or equivalent, or be enrolled in a qualifying education program; and be age 15 or older. They must also have entered the U.S. by January 2010 (modeled as any time during 2010 in our data). Additional criteria such as passing a criminal background check cannot be modeled. Our estimates include populations immediately eligible under the original 2012 DACA program as well as the expansions announced in November 2014.
**** Parents of U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents (LPRs) must also have at least five years of U.S. residence to qualify. Their children can be of any age. Additional criteria such as passing a criminal background check cannot be modeled.
- “School Enrollment of Children and Youth” refers to unauthorized immigrants who reported attending school or college at any time in the three months prior to the survey.
- For languages, “Chinese” includes Mandarin, Cantonese, and other Chinese languages; “English” includes English, Jamaican Creole, Krio, and Pidgin Krio; “French” includes French, Patois, French or Haitian Creole, and Cajun; “Hindi and related” includes Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Sindhi, Sinhalese, and Kannada; “Sub-Saharan African” includes Bantu, Swahili, Mande, Fulani, Kru, and other African languages; “Tagalog/Other Filipino” includes Tagalog, Bisayan, Sebuano, Llocano, and Hocano.
- “-“ estimates are zero, not applicable, or not displayed due to small sample size.
- Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Methodology in Brief:
In the SIPP, noncitizens report whether they currently have LPR status—i.e., a green card. Those without LPR status may be recent refugees, temporary visitors (e.g., students or high-skilled H-1B workers), Temporary Protected Status (TPS) beneficiaries, or unauthorized immigrants. Our method maps characteristics such as country of birth, year of U.S. entry, age, gender, and educational attainment between the two surveys, and those noncitizens in the ACS who have characteristics similar to those reporting LPR status in the SIPP are coded as LPRs in the ACS. The remaining noncitizens—who are similar in characteristics to those not reporting LPR status in the SIPP—are classified as either unauthorized or legal temporary migrants, depending on whether they meet the qualifications for H-1B, TPS, and the other temporary classifications. This method was developed by Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University and James Bachmeier of Temple University. For more detail on the methods, see Jeanne Batalova, Sarah Hooker, Randy Capps, and James D. Bachmeier, DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action (Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute, 2014).