Profile of the Unauthorized Population: Texas

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Find your county here at the Texas Tribune county -by – county interactive data  >>> to see the percentage of undocumented residents in each county and how long they have lived in the U.S.

 

Demographics Estimate % of Total
Unauthorized Population 1,464,000 100%
Top Countries of Birth
Mexico 1,170,000 80%
El Salvador 48,000 3%
Honduras 48,000 3%
Guatemala 43,000 3%
India 17,000 1%
Regions of Birth
Central America (includes Mexico) 1,319,000 90%
Caribbean
South America 24,000 2%
Europe/Canada/Oceania 15,000 1%
Asia 83,000 6%
Africa 21,000 1%
Years of U.S. Residence
Less than 5 311,000 21%
5 to 9 410,000 28%
10 to 14 350,000 24%
15 to 19 175,000 12%
20 or more 218,000 15%
Age
Under 16 133,000 9%
16 to 24 249,000 17%
25 to 34 438,000 30%
35 to 44 357,000 24%
45 to 54 183,000 12%
55 and over 103,000 7%
Gender
Female 676,000 46%
Family Estimate % of Total
Parental Status
Population ages 15 and older 1,348,000 100%
Reside with at least one U.S.-citizen child under 18 533,000 40%
Reside with noncitizen children only under 18 92,000 7%
Reside with no children 723,000 54%
Marital Status
Population ages 15 and older 1,348,000 100%
Never married 446,000 33%
Married to a U.S. citizen 106,000 8%
Married to a legal permanent resident (LPR) 95,000 7%
Married to non-U.S. citizen/non-LPR 447,000 33%
Divorced, separated, widowed 255,000 19%
Education and Language Estimate % of Total
School Enrollment of Children and Youth
Population ages 3 to 17 167,000 100%
Enrolled 152,000 91%
Not enrolled 15,000 9%
Population ages 3 to 12 81,000 100%
Enrolled 74,000 91%
Not enrolled 7,000 9%
Population ages 13 to 17 86,000 100%
Enrolled 78,000 91%
Not enrolled 7,000 9%
Population ages 18 to 24 211,000 100%
Enrolled 45,000 21%
Not enrolled 166,000 79%
Educational Attainment of Adults
Population ages 25 and older 1,082,000 100%
0-5 grade 160,000 15%
6-8 grade 266,000 25%
9-12 grade 234,000 22%
High school diploma or GED 224,000 21%
Some college or associate’s degree 107,000 10%
Bachelor’s, graduate, or professional degree 90,000 8%
English Proficiency
Population ages 5 and older 1,453,000 100%
Speak only English 58,000 4%
Speak English “very well” 275,000 19%
Speak English “well” 270,000 19%
Speak English “not well”/”not at all” 850,000 58%
Top 5 Languages Spoken at Home
Population ages 5 and older 1,453,000 100%
Spanish 1,294,000 89%
English 58,000 4%
Hindi and related 18,000 1%
Vietnamese 12,000 1%
Workforce Estimate % of Total
Labor Force Participation
Civilian population ages 16 and older 1,331,000 100%
Employed 833,000 63%
Unemployed 75,000 6%
Not in the labor force 423,000 32%
Top Industries of Employment*
Civilian employed population ages 16 and older 989,000 100%
Construction 243,000 25%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 167,000 17%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management 118,000 12%
Manufacturing 104,000 10%
Other services (except public administration) 86,000 9%
Economics Estimate % of Total
Family Income
Below 50% of the poverty level 219,000 15%
50-99% of the poverty level 329,000 22%
100-149% of the poverty level 285,000 19%
150-199% of the poverty level 220,000 15%
At or above 200% of the poverty level 410,000 28%
Access to Health Insurance
Uninsured 1,102,000 75%
Home Ownership**
Homeowner 608,000 42%
Deferred Action Estimate % of Total
Childhood arrivals (DACA)*** 183,000 13%
Parents of U.S. citizens or LPRs **** 560,000 38%

Source: Migration Policy Institute analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data from the American Community Survey (ACS), 2008-2012 pooled, and the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), by James Bachmeier of Temple University and Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute (PRI). Data for the DACA estimates are modeled using U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2012 ACS and the 2008 SIPP in order to account for the required entry date in 2010. Estimates of the deferred action program for parents are from U.S. Census Bureau, 2008-2012 ACS data and 2008 SIPP data

Data-related notes
* “Top Industries of Employment” are those in which unauthorized immigrants were employed at the time of the survey or during the last five years. “Other services” are miscellaneous services, not including the following services listed separately: (1) professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services; (2) educational, health and social services; and (3) arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services.

** “Homeowners” are unauthorized immigrants residing in homes that are owned, not rented.

*** To be eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, unauthorized immigrants must have entered the U.S. before age 16; have a high school degree or equivalent, or be enrolled in a qualifying education program; and be age 15 or older. They must also have entered the U.S. by January 2010 (modeled as any time during 2010 in our data). Additional criteria such as passing a criminal background check cannot be modeled. Our estimates include populations immediately eligible under the original 2012 DACA program as well as the expansions announced in November 2014.

**** Parents of U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents (LPRs) must also have at least five years of U.S. residence to qualify. Their children can be of any age. Additional criteria such as passing a criminal background check cannot be modeled.

  1. “School Enrollment of Children and Youth” refers to unauthorized immigrants who reported attending school or college at any time in the three months prior to the survey.
  2. For languages, “Chinese” includes Mandarin, Cantonese, and other Chinese languages; “English” includes English, Jamaican Creole, Krio, and Pidgin Krio; “French” includes French, Patois, French or Haitian Creole, and Cajun; “Hindi and related” includes Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Sindhi, Sinhalese, and Kannada; “Sub-Saharan African” includes Bantu, Swahili, Mande, Fulani, Kru, and other African languages; “Tagalog/Other Filipino” includes Tagalog, Bisayan, Sebuano, Llocano, and Hocano.
  3. “-“ estimates are zero, not applicable, or not displayed due to small sample size.
  4. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.

Methodology in Brief:
In the SIPP, noncitizens report whether they currently have LPR status—i.e., a green card. Those without LPR status may be recent refugees, temporary visitors (e.g., students or high-skilled H-1B workers), Temporary Protected Status (TPS) beneficiaries, or unauthorized immigrants. Our method maps characteristics such as country of birth, year of U.S. entry, age, gender, and educational attainment between the two surveys, and those noncitizens in the ACS who have characteristics similar to those reporting LPR status in the SIPP are coded as LPRs in the ACS. The remaining noncitizens—who are similar in characteristics to those not reporting LPR status in the SIPP—are classified as either unauthorized or legal temporary migrants, depending on whether they meet the qualifications for H-1B, TPS, and the other temporary classifications. This method was developed by Jennifer Van Hook of The Pennsylvania State University and James Bachmeier of Temple University. For more detail on the methods, see Jeanne Batalova, Sarah Hooker, Randy Capps, and James D. Bachmeier, DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action (Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute, 2014).

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